Though a shoe maker by trade, Joseph Phipps (1708–1787) was the author of several scholarly publications explaining and defending the tenets of Early Friends. In 1772, in response to a critical publication by a man named Samuel Newton, Phipps wrote “The Original and Present State of Man,” in which he cleared the Society from many unjust and untrue charges, and also defended and clarified the leading principles and practices of the Quakers. This extraordinary little book deals with “The nature of man’s fall, and the necessity, means, and manner of his restoration through the sacrifice of Christ, and the discernible operation of that Divine Spirit of grace and truth.”
Perfect redemption then consists, first, in paying the price of ransom; and second, in bringing out of bondage, and setting the prisoner at liberty. Our Savior paid the first by His suffering and sacrifice, and He performs the last by the effectual operation of His Spirit in the hearts of those who receive Him and resign wholly to Him.- Joseph Phipps
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The Original and Present State of Man, demonstrating the nature of man’s fall, the necessity, means, and manner of his restoration through the sacrifice of Christ, and the discernible operation of that Divine Spirit of grace and truth.